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Thursday, 14 April 2016

MESOPOTAMIA GREAT MINDS

MESOPOTAMIA GREAT MINDS

                                                                                         
                     
Here I am going to give contributions by great minds to the world. Such a list can be extended or modified by me from time to time as I get hold of new information.


  THE MESOPOTAMIANS


Mesopotamia is a name for the area of the Tigris -Euphrates river system corresponding to modern day Iraq and north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey and  western Iran. I have included the descendants who have origin here as Mesopotamians.
 But in reality the whole of Mesopotamian Plate, which includes above areas and State of Mesopotamia and Chaldea, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel is Mesopotamia because the Mesopotamians, Human Mesopotamians evolved on this tectonic plate.
    Most of the Mesopotamians living on the Mesopotamian tectonic plate are concentrated in ISRAEL, IRAQ, KURDISTAN, KUWAIT, SYRIA LEBANON, JORDAN, STATE OF MESOPOTAMIA AND CHALDEA. (MESOPOTAMIAN CUNTRIES)
Because Jews are also Mesopotamians who migrated from mainland Mesopotamia to west of Jordan river more than 5000 years back so they are also a very important and integral part of Mesopotamians and Mesopotamian civilization and culture. Thus all contributions made by Jews must be looked upon as contributions of the Mesopotamians.


The following is a list of contributions to the world from Mesopotamians, the apex intelligence and the greatest civilization the world has ever known, the greatest of great people and the straightest of straight people.

I will start giving the contributions of the greatest Inventor, greatest Scientist, Greatest Genius, greatest Military tactician, greatest King and a most holy and pious man, Holy high Priest and Holy high King, His excellency, His Highness, His majesty KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR of Babylon.

He is the true INVENTOR of following, which you use daily:

*******ELECTRICITY: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the ALTERNATOR to produce electricity. He also invented the WATER TURBINE to produce electricity. He also invented the ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

******* ENGINES: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented all three engines used today, the PISTON COMBUSTION ENGINE, ROTATORY COMBUSTION ENGINE and the STEAM ENGINE.

******* TRANSPORT: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented ROADS and RAILS for transport.

******** AIRCRAFTS: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented both AEROPLANE and HELICOPTERS. He also invented the GLIDER and PARACHUTE.

********TRANSPORT VEHICLES: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented workable CAR, TRAIN.

******** MOTORS: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the MOTOR, which he used to invent FAN and AIR COOLER.

******** LIGHTING: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the BULB and TUBE to give light to the world.

******** COMMUNICATION: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH and RADIO for communication.

******** BOTANY: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the first Botanical garden in 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon'. He studies several plants, made cross breeding and genetic studies and gave basic laws of GENETICS.
******** TORCH: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the Torch using the battery cells he himself invented.
******** GUNS: Holy high Priest Holy high King KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR invented the Pistol, Revolver, Cannon and shoulder fired Rifle. He also invented the Gunpowder to make bullets.





*The first written codes of law were designed by the Mesopotamians, which can be taken as the first constitution in the world and the beginning of Democracy.

*Established drainage system, which was used for draining marshes for agriculture. 

*Established industries like Weaving, Leatherwork, Metalwork, Masonry, and Pottery.

*The city of ERIDU on the Persian gulf was world's first city.

*invented WRITING .Triangular or wedge shaped reeds were used to  write on moist clay.

*invented irrigation agriculture.

*invented Pottery wheel for mass production of unpainted pottery.

*invented fire places ,fire altars and chimneys.

* invented the fist independent language in Mesopotamian  ,a agglutinative language in which morphemes (units of meaning) are added together to create words .Mesopotamian and its derivatives developed by Mesopotamians is the root, master and mother of all languages that are spoken in the world. 

*Organized irrigation, large scale intensive cultivation of land ,mono cropping inventing use of plough agriculture, use of agricultural specialized labor force under bureaucratic control.

*invented the use of Oxen in agriculture ploughing and as beast of burden and donkeys or equids as primary transport animal.

*Domesticated barley, wheat, chickpeas, lentils, dates, onions, garlic, lettuce, leeks, and mustard. 

*Three member harvesting team in reaper, binder, and shef handler. 

*invented mud brick and baked brick as building material.

*invented Towers for defense.




*invented doors and hinge which opened with key. Thus invented lock and key system.

*developed arch which helped them develop dome by constructing several arches.

*developed buttresses, recesses, half columns, clay nails for construction.

*invented arithmetic.

*invented geometry.

*invented algebra .

*invented multiplication tables written on clay tablets along with geometrical exercises and division problems.

*invented Abacus, a counting frame is a calculating tool for performing arithmetic processes  which was a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their Sexagesimal number system. May also have used for the operations of addition and subtraction.

*invented the place value numeral system, in which the value of a particular digit depends on the digit itself and its position within the number. Only two symbols ( I to count units and < to count tens ) were used  to notate the 59 nonzero digits. A space was left to indicate a place without value ,similar to modern day zero and thus invented zero as well.

*used type of slide rule in astronomical calculations.

*first to find area of a triangle.

*first to find volume of a cube.

*invented helmet (made of copper).

*invented shields (made of leather or wicker).

*introduced professional soldiers.




*invented Chariot, two wheeled and four wheeled.

*invented woven basket.

*invented Siege warfare.

*invented wheel and axle.

*invented steering system.

*invented boats and ships.

*invented Luni-solar calendar.

*invented Bronze ,an alloy of copper and tin.

*invented leather.
*invented saws.

*invented chisels.

*invented hammers.

*invented Brace, a hand tool to drill holes.

*invented Bits, placed in mouth of horse to control it.

*invented nails.

*invented pins.

*invented rings.

*invented Hoes =Spade.

*invented axe.

*invented Knife.

*invented lance points ,a pole weapon designed to be used by mounted warrior.

*invented arrowheads.

*invented swords.

*invented dagger.

*invented glue.

*invented waterskins .(receptacle to hold water).

*invented bags.

*invented harnesses.

*invented armor.

*invented quivers.

*invented Scabbards.

*invented boots.

*invented sandals.

*invented harpoons.

*invented beer and wine and the process of brewing.

*invented Zodiac.

*discovered the first five planets visible to naked eye.

*invented military formations and introduced the basic divisions between infantry, cavalry, archers.

*invented the first codified legal and administrative systems, complete with courts, jails, and government records.

*invented messages and mail delivery system.

*invented formal schools for education.

*invented money in the form of tokens. 

*invented pen from a sharpened reed stylus or incised in stone.

* invented columns and pillars in architecture and structural engineering which transmits the weight of structures above to other structural elements below it.

invented Urban planning with roads, streets and housing system which was basically a courtyard house.

*invented glass.

*invented Lantern and Candle.

*used stone, clay and glass to make vases.

*invented fountains.

*Organized system of diatonic scales, depending on the tuning of stringed instruments. Thus had working knowledge of harmonics and wave production and oscillation and nodes and antinodes.

*Introduced the seven day week. 

*invented maps and the processes of map making.

*first calculated circumference of circle as three times of diameter which is equivalent to modern day calculation of 2 piR.

*first calculated area of circle as 1/2 circumference squared.

*first calculated Volume of cylinder as =area of base x height.

* first calculated pi as 25/8 which is a approximation of modern day value.

*introduced measurement of distance in the form of mile which is equivalent to 7 modern miles or 11 kilometers. Converted to time mile used for meaning the travel of sun ,therefore equivalent to representing in the modern form of light year measurement distance .
*Could predict eclipses and solstices.

*invented the 12 month calendar based on cycles of moon.

*predicted motions of planets.

*Sir Seleucus of seleuca gave the heliocentric theory in which earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the sun .He also theorized that tides were caused by moon and whirling motion of earth.  Sir Seleucus was the first to see that the tides are due to attraction of the moon and that the height of the tides depend on the moon's position relative to the sun and thus gave the mechanism of high tide and low tide.

    Thus Sir Seleucus gave the law of gravity and discovered gravitational force nearly 1800 years ago.

                                                                                                               TANVIR



* Sir Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, a chief scholar during the reign of king Adda-apla-iddna wrote the "Diagnostic Handbook" in which he introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination and prescriptions. All modern medicine (allopathic system of medicine ) is based on these concepts and principals.

          Sir Esagil-kin-apli introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with diagnosis and prognosis.

     The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills. 

 "Diagnostic Handbook " was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its etiology, its future development and the chances of patient's recovery (prognosis).

    Sir Esagil-kin-apli discovered a variety of illnesses and diseases and described their symptoms in 'Diagnostic Handbook’. These include the symptoms for many varieties of epilepsy and related ailments along with their diagnosis and prognosis. 

     Since the modern allopathic system of medicine is dependent on these principals given by Sir Esagil-kin-apli, so the system should be named as the Mesopotamian system of medicine & surgery(MSMS).

*invented textile weaving.

*invented methods for flood control.

*invented water storage techniques.

*invented Sennacherib Screw (falsely known as Archimedes screw )for the water systems at the Hanging gardens of Babylon by Sir Sennacherib .

*Invented man made electricity through Baghdad battery or Parthian battery  :- galvanic cells for electroplating gold or silver objects which is a invention of electrochemical cell.

             It consist of terra-cotta pots approximately 130 mm tall containing a copper cylinder made of rolled up copper sheet ,which houses a single iron (or galvanized nail) rod. At the top the iron rod is isolated from the coper of bitumen plugs or stoppers and both rod and cylinder fit snugly inside the opening of the jar, which bulges outward towards the middle. The copper cylinder is not watertight so if the jar were filled with a liquid, this would surround the iron rod as well.

         Thus the Mesopotamians invented electricity and its production thousands of years before the west.

*gave birth to philosophy 

  *Mesopotamian philosophy is based on logic and scientific rationale. In Mesopotamian philosophy any belief or thinking is unacceptable if it does not stand to reason, logic and scientific rationale. This very scientific thinking and logical mind has made the Mesopotamians the greatest civilization and the apex intelligence in the universe.

*invented Festivals and ceremonies. Each month Mesopotamians celebrated festivals depending on the phase of moon, annual agriculture cycle, equinoxes and solstices, local myths  and its divine patrons, reigning monarch, historical events to give the modern concept of celebration and festivity.

*invented the games of Boxing, Wrestling and polo.

*invented majore, equivalent to modern rugby.

*invented a board game similar to Senet and backgammon, a royal game of Ur.

*gave the concept of graves as the resting place for the dead.

*invented Banking system with temples working as banks and developed the first system of loans and credit.

*Developed the administrative unit of Provinces, which had governors who collected taxes, call soldiers and supply workers. 

*Mesopotamian Laws of planetary motion: 

 The motion of objects and their interactions and forces were studied by the Mesopotamians in great detail who kept records of these observations including that of celestial bodies in great details on cuneiform tablets. 

      The data and details of these tablets were taken after Greek conquest and roman conquest and taken back where they studied them and wrote books based on them. 

      It were these data and laws which were first studied by Johannes Kepler ,a German mathematician and astronomer to restate the planetary laws of motion .

1) Mesopotamian - first law of planetary motion states that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun as one focus of the ellipse. 

2) Mesopotamian second law of planetary motion states that the line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the planet travels around the ellipse. 

3) Mesopotamian third law of planetary motion states that the ratio of the squares of the revolutionary periods for two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semi major axes. 

            The Mesopotamian laws of planetary motions are based on the three Mesopotamian laws of motion and the Mesopotamian Universal gravitational law .It is also based on the properties of ellipses which are that for an ellipse there are two points called foci such that the sum of the distances to the foci from any point on ellipse is a constant and that amount of flattening of the ellipse is termed eccentricity. 

     If we observe and see the three planetary laws they are exclusively based on the observations and data collected by the Mesopotamians and the discovery of gravitational force given by Sir Seleucus and his other observations about the planetary motions. 




*Mesopotamian laws of motions: 

 Because the Mesopotamians kept detailed record of their observations, it was used as a basis of forming the Mesopotamian laws of planetary motion and other observations led the Mesopotamians to form the three laws of motion as follows. 

1) Mesopotamian first law of motion states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force, also called the law of inertia. 

2) Mesopotamian second law of motion states that the applied force F on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum p, with time 

 or   F= dP/dT  = d(mv)/dT

       From this Newton derived the equation for the second law as F= ma , which is force is given by the product of mass and its acceleration which is change in velocity as given in above dP/dT equation .

3) Mesopotamian third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

  or F  =  - F

*Mesopotamian  law of universal gravitation :

               As I have written earlier that it was the Mesopotamian observations and data and calculations and conclusions which led Sir Seleucus to discover gravitation and he also realised that the earth ,moon and other planets rotate around the sun due to this  gravitational force. Thus in his honour the Mesopotamian -law of universal gravitation should be known as SELEUCUS law of Universal gravitation which states that 

          Every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force directed along the line of centers for the two objects that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the separation between them .

               Fg = Gm1m2 /R^2

 where Fg is a gravitational force between two bodies m1 and m2 and R is the separation between the objects and G is the universal gravitational constant. 

  
*"The basic periodic motions of the sun, moon and planets were measured and arithmetic model capable of predicting their conjunctions and other important features were established by the Mesopotamians. 

*The Mesopotamians used certain arithmetic functions whose values at an instant in time described the position of the celestial body with respect to the background of fixed stars as seen from the earth. Now it is known as 'Linear zig-zag functions '


*The linear zigzag functions, and hence the mathematical mode of the cosmos used by the Mesopotamians were based on arithmetical progressions which capably predicted eclipses and other astronomical events. This reflects their arithmetical capabilities and effectiveness of the hexagonal positional system of notation. 

*The Mesopotamians founded Astrology in their identification of personal deities with various heavenly bodies: Mercury with Nebo, Venus with Ishtar, Mars with Nergal, Jupiter with Marduk, Saturn with Ninib, the moon with Sin and the sun with Shamash. 

      The motion of the bodies in the solar system is viewed against the background of the fixed stars. Various star clusters are identified with familiar creatures and objects whose forms appeared to be similar to the patterns traced by the stars of the principal importance were those constellations that lie when viewed from earth, behind the paths of motion of the planets, moon and sun. Since all these bodies move in nearly the same plane -the plane of eclipse -their motion against the background of stars appear to take place in a relatively narrow band. This imaginative zone of the heavens bounded by two circles equidistant from the ecliptic plane and separated by about 18 degrees is the zodiac. The zodiac is partitioned into 12 equal signs, each comprises 30 degrees in the ecliptic plane, each sign is associated with a constellation that lies in the zodiacal band from which the sign draws its name.

  

Capricorn, the goat

Saggitarius, the archer

Scorpion, the scorpion 

Libra, the balance

Virgo, the virgin

Leo, the lion

Cancer, the crab

Gemini, the twins (pollux and castor)

Taurus, the bull

Aries, the ram

Pisces, the fish

Aquarium, the water bearer 


*Mesopotamian Precession of the earth's axis :

The earth is a spinning top rotating on its axis once each day. The wobbly motion of its axis traces a circular cone in space. Nearly 26000 years pass before the earth's axis return to its initial direction. Another consequence of this wobbling precession of the earth's axis is a continual slow change in the annual appearance of the heavens. These calculations are based on Mesopotamian astronomical achievements.

*Mesopotamian Right angle triangle theorem: 

 states that the hypotenuse square is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. 

*Mesopotamian mathematicians constructed tables of the length of cords of a circle of a given radius which correspond to modern tables of sines and particularly useful for astronomical purposes. Thus Mesopotamians gave us sine tabulations. 

*In essence the Mesopotamians invented the right triangle trigonometry and hence trigonometry itself.

*invented addition ,subtraction ,multiplication and division in mathematics.

*The Mesopotamians gave the world its first published legal law. 

*It gave the world, the formation of contracts, deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and legal decision. 

*Judges are supervised and appeal is allowed. 

*Introduced a regular postal system.

*Introduced perpetual recourse to written contract. 

*Introduced deed of agreement, notary public and witnessed by professional witnesses and interested parties. 

*Introduced process of appeal against court judgment. 

*Introduced Tax officers, octroi duties, customs, ferry dues, highway and water rates all of which are followed in all parts of the world. 

*Introduced disposing of property by sale, lease, barter, gift, dedication, deposit, loan or pledges as matters of contract. 

*Introduced land leasing.

*Introduced farming compensation and compensation in other matters.

*Introduced statutory wages for workers. 

*Introduced responsibility of ship on the captain. 

*Introduced marriage as contract between willing female and male. 

*Introduced divorce between married. 

*Introduced Adoption of children and framed rules for it. 

*Introduced bureaucracy and taxation. 

*The modern numbering system 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20, 21 ..........is based on the Mesopotamian numerical base 1,10 and 60 .The digits between one to ten have been given names as have between eleven and twenty and after twenty its exactly the same as in Mesopotamian numerology with base 10 as the basic unit. After twenty-one is added and number names from one to nine repeated to give twenty to twenty nine and than thirty and so on with every base with every tenth number given a special number. After hundred it becomes simpler till thousand and so on. 

        Thus modern numerical system including zero, which was in built in base 10 numbering, is the invention of Mesopotamians. 

*The present Gregorian calendar is based and is a modified version of Mesopotamian calendar, which was luni-, solar in the sense that lunar months and solar months are approximated by the nineteen-year cycle. 

  19years =235 syndic months =6900 days 

  1/19 of 6940 day cycle =365 +1/4+1/76 days which is what a gregorian calendar is worth in days

 But to keep lunar calendar which was behind solar calendar ,a 13th month needed to be added on seven occasions during the nineteen year period .

    19 tropical years =6939.602 days 

     235 syndic months (lunar phases) =6939.688days

     254 sidereal months (lunar orbits) =6939.702 days

     255 diatonic months (lunar nodes ) =6939.1161 days 

Thus the modern calendar should be known as Mesopotamian -Gregorian calendar .

*The Mesopotamians could calculate the root values of 2,3 etc.

*invented water clock.

*The Mesopotamians invented the first positional numeral system in which the value of a particular digit depends both on the digit itself and its position within the number.

*The Mesopotamian principal of differential pressure with differential curvature :

       Though air flight was not there during early Mesopotamian times but it was the Mesopotamians who discovered, understood and used the differential pressure with differential curvature (falsely known as Burnoilles principal) in which air travels faster over a more curved surface and slower over the less curved surface creating a pressure differential with less pressure on the more curved surface with fast air and more pressure on the less curved surface and less air sped time. This creates a pressure differential which makes the object with two curves (like sail of boat and wing of plane ) move in a direction towards lower pressure or from higher pressure to lower pressure which is forward in case of sail boats and upwards in case of airplanes.

    Thus the main credit for both boat travel and airplane should go the great Mesopotamians who discovered and understood this principal thousand of years before it was used to fly a airplane.
                                                                                                 
*invented Grindstone and oven.

*Invented furniture like bed, chair, table, stool, cabinet, cupboard, and box, throne, storage chests etc.

*invented Draw loom.

*invented pulley system.

*invented Barter system.

*invented International trade and  business.

*invented clothing from wool ,flax and later cotton.

*first to cultivate wheat and make and use baked bread.

*invented the machine for bulk production of paper.

*Introduced the use of trip hammer (human or animal powered) in the production of paper. 

*Produced the thicker modern version of paper.


*first to cultivate flax.

*Flax was used to produce nets, cloth, linseed oil, meal and pharmaceuticals. 

*invented fishing net.

*cultivated leeks, onions, lentils, wheat and barley.

*Grapes were used to produce wine. The Mesopotamians invented wine.

*invented cooked vegetable stews.

*extracted Cheese and Butter from milk.

*invented the making of cake from butter, cheese, dates, flour and raisins.

*created the first written recipe.

*raw material for staple diet were barley, wheat, millet, chick peas, lentils and beans, onion, garlic, and leeks, cucumbers, cress, mustard and fresh green lettuce.

*Truffles was a special delicacy.

*Beer was part of staple diet. 

*invented grain and legume soups.

*invented preparation of dried fruits.

*invented extraction techniques for butter, cheese and cooking oil.

*Domesticated and grew apples, apricots, cherries, figs, melons, mulberries, pears, plums, pomegranates, quinces, and dates. 

*Cultivated vegetables onions, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, carrots, radishes, beets, and turnips, legumes  including beans, peas, chick peas and egg plant.

*invented the use of spices in food. They used coriander, cress, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, leek, marjoram, mint, mustard, rosemary, rosemary, rue, saffron and thyme.

*Meat was dried, smoked and salted for preservation or were cooked by roasting, boiling, broiling or barbecuing. 

*invented cooking.

*invented the accounting system which was meticulous and detailed.

*invented reception parties.

*invented pastries by confecting dairy fats.

*Date syrup was main sweetener. 

*invented Banquets and dining halls.

*introduced professional cooks.

*invented meat soups and vegetable soups.

*invented porridge dish.

*Boiling the meat into stew with spices and other ingredients was the basic culinary technique. 

*Tree of life and garden of Eden are Mesopotamian mythology.

*invented sandwiches.

*invented alcoholic cocktail (wine +barley beer +honey mead).

*used opium for joy or rejoicing.

*formulated ergot as a treatment for controlling bleeding caused from childbirth.

*introduced manicuring in fashion.



*introduced long hairs and shaved heads for men.

*introduced keeping hair in long entwined braids.

*introduced hairstyling using cutting, curling, dyeing, and layering hair. Hair and beards of men were cut in symmetrical geometrical shapes  and curling with curl bars (fire heated iron bars ).

*invented wig.

*invented body moisturizer (almond oil).

*invented perfume (almond oil).

*invented hair conditioner (almond oil).

*invented deodorant.

*introduced erotic poetry.

*invented mechanical seeding -the metal plows were funnel shaped with contour filled with seeds, cows pull plow and seeds would go into the ground.

*Domesticated ducks, geese and hens for the eggs and meat.

*Tamed horses.

*invented straw.

*invented money system by using clay tablets for trade. Tokens were of different sizes and shapes .The tokens were put in a clay ball with the number of tokens pressed on the outside.
*invented pen in the form of stylus for cuneiform writing.

*first to recognise the concept of zero.

*invented water pump (shaduf) and with it the pulley system.

*invented Oud, a guitar and violin hybrid type of musical instrument from which the modern day guitars and violins are derived.

*invented drums  as musical instrument from which all modern drums are derived.

*invented lyre.

*invented reed pipe.

*invented harp.

*invented first water cooling system in the form of unglazed pots or vases which kept water cool by evaporation through the pores.

*invented mosaics made with tiny pieces of painted clay.
*invented weaving.

*introduced palaces, city walls, gates. Ishtar gate is a great example .

*introduced headpins, anklets, amulets, heavy multi string necklaces, close fitting collar necklaces.

*the Mesopotamians were the first to divide time units into 60 parts ,60 seconds minute and 60 minute hour.

*developed the understanding and naming of constellations.

*first to document planets ,comets ,meteors and eclipses.

*invented multi-story buildings.

*invented cities.

*invented written prescriptions.

*invented surgery 

*invented banking with charging interest and depositing valuables in a safe place along with loans 

*introduced division of labor with different people doing different jobs.

*invented Library 




*invented Umbrella 

*invented soap 

*invented frying pans 

*invented razor.

*invented flushing toilets 

*invented envelopes 

*invented printing 

*invented Seal, in the form of a cylinder made of hard stone into which the design or message has been engraved in the reverse. Whenever the seal was rolled on the wet clay, the imprint created positive impression of the clay.

*360 degrees in a circle, the foot and it's 12 inches and a dozen were introduced as a unit.

*invented Kiln, Crucibles and Furnaces.

*invented the technology to find to find and extract ores ,crush them ,then smelt and refine them.

*invented the art of metallurgy with bronze.

*introduced bitumen, and asphalt, petroleum products as fuel. Thus began the use of these petroleum products.

*Invented the use of petroleum products, not only as fuel, but also as road building materials for water proofing, chalking, painting, cementing and molding.

*had advanced knowledge of chemistry and alchemy and used to make paints and pigments, glazing.

*invented surgical instruments.

*performed brain surgeries, cataract operations, curettage.

*introduced the serpent around a tree seal, the symbol of medicine to this very day.

*Doctors recommended cleaning and washing, soaking in baths of hot water and mineral solvents, application of vegetable derivatives, rubbing and petroleum compounds.

*Medicines were made from plant and mineral compounds and were mixed with liquids and solvents. 

*invented enema for administering medicine through rectal route.

*Alcohol used as surgical disinfectant. 

*Introduced medical schools. 

*Introduced dissection of bodies. 

*Advanced knowledge of Anatomy of body.

*Introduced the first bicameral congress.

*The first historian. 

*The first pharmacopoeia. 

*The first Job.

*The first proverbs and sayings. 

*The first literary debates. 

*The first library catalog.

*First law codes and social reforms. 

*In Gilgamesh gave the world its first super hero. 

*Gave the world its first botanical garden in the hanging gardens of Babylon.

*invented the game of 'Draughts', a checker game which can be seen as a precursor of modern day chess.

*The city of Mosul gives us e cloth that bears its name 'muslin' as well as building material ,alabaster and gypsum cement.

*invented the bucket chain pump which had a series of buckets that passed over a pulley system for irrigation.

*invented the first system of conflict resolution and punishment through a legal authority known as law.

*The Ur Nammu law code given by Sir.Ur Nammu is the oldest known set of laws in history, featured 57 codes. The laws covered the punishment of murder, robbery, kidnapping, adultery, rape, practicing sorcery, lying and rudeness. 

*Normal citizens had the power to make decisions in assemblies. 

*invented city states with their own military and government.

*invented quadratic and cubic equations and fractions.

*invented algebra.

*invented sanitation techniques.

*invented lever system.

*invented sundial clock.

*developed the first government system.

*innovation of cart 

*invented court system 

*invented jails 

*invented smelting 

*invented scythes 

*invented oil lamps 

*invented Democracy 




*developed internal logic 

*invented drains, columns and tiles.

*first drainage system.

*originated epics.

*introduced essay writing.

*introduced horticultural manuals.

*developed libraries and schools that used the first dictionaries ,grammars and textbooks.

*They standardized measures of weight, length, area, volume and time. 

*Developed standing armies. 

*Introduced concept of witness and document authentication. 

*Introduced the term ‘freedom’. 

*Developed socialism in society. 

*Developed the concept of women rights. Women could hold land, file for divorce and make contracts in trade. 

*Developed secularism concept. 

*Developed the concept of human rights.

*Introduced personal property ownership. 

*Built levees.

*invented bucket and mug.

*If we take something on which to write as definition, then Mesopotamians invented Paper (in the form off clay tablet),if we take a sheet to write on as definition ,than Egyptians invented Paper (as Papyrus sheets ) and if we take a sheet made from pulp as definition than the Chinese invented paper .

*invented street vendors.

*invented shops.

*started a thriving textile or fabric industry.

*invented dyes to decorate clothes 

*invented embroidery, appliques and beads to beautify garments.

*invented skirts.

*invented belt.

*Introduced scribes (professional writers ) who acted as recorders of facts, figures, ideas and traditions.

*Introduced posts of secretaries, bookkeepers, accountants, archivists, recorders, and writers of hymns and epics. 

*invented incense burner.

*invented Plaque 

*invented hair ribbon 

*invented earrings, necklace 

*invented geometry 

*invented stairs and ladder 



*The Mesopotamians also invented the Pajamas, which were derived from long skirt and on which today’s pants and jeans are based. 

*The Mesopotamians also invented the Catapult, which they even used in siege warfare, and which was later picked by the Greeks and modified. 

*The Mesopotamians also invented the architect cone, which is basically a metallic cone hanged from the center of the base by a thread or cord and is used in construction to see the vertical angle of the walls. 

Here are some other contributions from the great Mesopotamians:

*EARTH AXIAL TILT: Axial tilt (obliquity) of earth's axis with respect to earth plane of orbit was calculated by the Mesopotamians at nearly23 degrees. They also calculated the 41,000 year variation in the axial tilt from 22 to 24.5 degrees.

*EARTH AXIAL PRECESSION: the axial precession of earth's axis of rotation and its periodicity of 26,000 years was discovered by the Mesopotamians.
the above two are based on astronomical observations by the Mesopotamians over a period of 50,000 to 100,000 years. This means that at its present location the Mesopotamian civilization dates several hundred thousand years.

*MIRROR: the Mesopotamians plated one side of glass to invent mirror. They used paint and silver both for making mirrors.

*CONCAVE AND CONVEX LENSES: the Mesopotamians also used glass to invent both convex and concave lenses.

*CONVEX AND CONCAVE MIRRORS: the Mesopotamians made convex and concave glasses and painted them to make convex and concave mirrors.

*MYOPIA AND HYPERMETROPIA GLASSES: the Mesopotamians had very advanced medical knowledge. They could diagnose myopia and hypermetropia and treat them using glasses made of biconvex and biconcave lenses.

*TELESCOPE: the Mesopotamians used the lenses they made from glass to invent telescope. Many astronomical observations made by Mesopotamians could not have been possible without the invention of telescope.

*BINOCULARS: the Mesopotamians also used lenses to invent binoculars to look out for prey during hunting and enemy from watchtowers.

*MAGNIFYING GLASS: the Mesopotamians invented the hand lens or magnifying glass using the lenses they invented.


Because Jews are also Mesopotamians (Babylonians),who migrated from mainland Mesopotamia to west of Jordan river, more than 5000 years back, so they are also a very important and integral part of Mesopotamians and Mesopotamian civilization and culture. Thus all contributions made by Jews must be looked upon as contributions of the Mesopotamians.
I am giving below only a small part of it.

* Albert Einstein : 
One of the foremost Physicists and scientists of all time. He gave to the world: General theory of Relativity and Special Relativity. He gave the relationship between mass and energy in E = MC^2
He also gave the Photoelectric effect, Theory of Brownian motion, Einstein field equations, Einstein condensate, Unified field theory. He also invented the Einstein Refrigerator (Absorption refrigerator).

* Sigmund Freud :
He was a doctor and scientist who can be considered the father of psychology.
He developed the technique of Psychoanalysis.
He did the following scientific works : Introductory lectures on Psychoanalysis, New Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis, Studies on Hysteria, The Interpretation of dreams, The psychopathology of everyday life, Jokes and their relation to the unconscious, On Sexuality, Case Histories 1, Case Histories 2, On Psychopathology, On Metapsychology, Civilization, Society and Religion, The origins of religion, Art and Culture, Historical and Expository works of Psychoanalysis

 
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